A large component of these productive safety nets is to support lower-income rural households, one of the most vulnerable subsets of the population, during times of external shocks that may impact the households' ability to afford food. This is especially helpful given the context of climate change and how the bulk of effects in terms of temperature and weather shifts disproportionately affect lower-income, agricultural communities primarily in developing countries. Through these safety nets, national governments can help offset many of the losses that these communities would otherwise experience due to unprecedented crop losses and dramatically lower yields. Additionally, while the safety net payments are often determined based on a household's ability to contribute labor to public works programs, these payments are unconditional if such labor is found to be either limited or impossible for certain households, which may help further decrease food insecurity and poverty among elderly households or disabled households. At the same time, though, for households that are able to contribute labor, these expanded productive safety net programs then help provide jobs for these households through salaried work in contributing to government-funded projects. Furthermore, there is potential for this solution to help in female empowerment by offering greater support to female farmers, especially when the financial payments are combined with additional training or agricultural equipment.